# Key Concepts

To get the most out of n8n's functionalities and build powerful workflows, it's important to understand some basic concepts.

# Expression

An expression is a string of characters and symbols in a programming language that represents a value depending upon its input. n8n uses expressions extensively when a node refers to another node for input.

Node expression

# Item

Data sent from one node to another is sent as an array of JSON objects. Each element in this collection is called an Item. A node performs its action on each item of incoming data.

# Function

A function is a block of code designed to perform a certain task. In n8n, you can write custom JavaScript code snippets to add, remove, and update the data you receive from a node.

The Function and Function Item nodes are the most powerful in n8n. Both nodes work very similarly, they give you access to the incoming data and you can manipulate it. With these nodes you can implement any function you want using JavaScript code.

The code of the Function node gets executed only once. The node receives the full items (JSON and binary data) as an array and expects an array of items as a return value. The items returned can be totally different from the incoming ones. So it is not only possible to remove and edit existing items, but also to add or return totally new ones.

The code of the Function Item node gets executed once for every item. The node receives one item (just the JSON data) at a time as input. As a return value, it expects the JSON data of one single item. That makes it possible to add, remove, and edit JSON properties of items, but it is not possible to add new or remove existing items. Accessing and changing binary data is only possible via the methods getBinaryData and setBinaryData.

Both the Function node and Function Item node support promises. So instead of returning the item or items directly, it is also possible to return a promise which resolves accordingly.

Here is a comparative overview of the Function and Function Item nodes:

Data to access Function FunctionItem
JSON data items[index].json item
Binary data items[index].binary getBinaryData()

# Data

Data represents units of information that are collected by and transmitted through nodes. For "basic usage" it is not necessarily needed to understand how the data that gets passed from one node to another is structured. However, it becomes important if you want to:

  • Create your own node
  • Write custom expressions
  • Use the Function or Function Item node

# Data Structure

In n8n, all the data that is passed between nodes is an array of objects. It has the following structure:

		// Each item has to contain a "json" property. But it can be an empty object like {}.
		// Any kind of JSON data is allowed. So arrays and the data being deeply nested is fine.
		json: { // The actual data n8n operates on (required)
			// This data is only an example it could be any kind of JSON data
			jsonKeyName: 'keyValue',
			anotherJsonKey: {
				lowerLevelJsonKey: 1
		// Binary data of item. The most items in n8n do not contain any (optional)
		binary: {
			// The key-name "binaryKeyName" is only an example. Any kind of key-name is possible.
			binaryKeyName: {
				data: '....', // Base64 encoded binary data (required)
				mimeType: 'image/png', // Optional but should be set if possible (optional)
				fileExtension: 'png', // Optional but should be set if possible (optional)
				fileName: 'example.png', // Optional but should be set if possible (optional)

# Data Flow

Nodes do not only process one "item", they process multiple ones. For example, if the Trello node is set to Create-Card and it has an expression set for Name to be set depending on name property, it will create a card for each item, always choosing the name-property-value of the current one.

This data would, for example, create two cards. One named test1 the other one named test2:

		name: "test1"
		name: "test2"

# Error Workflow

For each workflow, an optional Error Workflow can be set in the Workflow Settings. It gets executed if the original execution fails. That makes it possible to, for instance, inform the user via Email or Slack if something goes wrong. The same Error Workflow can be set on multiple workflows.

The only difference between a regular workflow and an Error Workflow is that it contains an Error Trigger node, so it is important to make sure that this node gets created before setting a workflow as Error Workflow.

The Error Trigger node will trigger in case the execution fails and receives information about it. The data looks like this:

		"execution": {
			"id": "231",
			"url": "https://n8n.example.com/execution/231",
			"retryOf": "34",
			"error": {
				"message": "Example Error Message",
				"stack": "Stacktrace"
			"lastNodeExecuted": "Node With Error",
			"mode": "manual"
		"workflow": {
			"id": "1",
			"name": "Example Workflow"

All information is always present except:

  • execution.id: Only present when the execution gets saved in the database
  • execution.url: Only present when the execution gets saved in the database
  • execution.retryOf: Only present when the execution is a retry of a previously failed execution

# Security

By default, n8n can be accessed by everybody. This is okay if you only have it running locally but if you deploy it on a server which is accessible from the web, you have to make sure that n8n is protected.

# Basic Auth

Right now we have very basic protection in place using basic-auth. It can be activated by setting the following environment variables:



There is also limited support for JWT based authentication. If enabled, n8n will verify the token with the provided JSON Web Key Set URI. It can be configured through the following environment variables:

export N8N_JWT_AUTH_ACTIVE=true
export N8N_JWKS_URI=<URI>

Keep in mind that there is currently no built-in way of passing down the Token in the request, so to use JWT you have to have the token in the request manually.